Such is our dePendence on fossil fuels, and such is rhcvolurneofciirbon dioxide already


Such is our dePendence on fossil fuels, and such is rhcvolurneofciirbon dioxide already
rleased intd the atmosphere, thatmany experts agrec that significant global warming is flow inevitable. They be1icv that the best WC cand iskeep it at a reasonable level, and at present the only serious option for doing this is Cutting back on our carbon emissions. But while a few countries are making major-strides in this regard, the. rnâjorityare having great difflcitfty even stmiiingthe rate ofincrease; let alone reversing it. Conseqient1y, an incccasing number of SCientiSts are beginning to explore the alternative ofgeoengineering a term which generally refers tothe intentional largescaJe manipulation i the environment According to its• proponents, geoengifleering isthe equivalc ofa.backup generator: ifPlan A reducing our dependency on fossJ fuels fails, Werequire a Plan B, .employing grand schemes tp slow down or reverse the process ofglobal warming.

Geo-engineering hasbeen shciwrj d work, ätfeaSt’on a small local
Dày parades in Mosc0 have

ised scale. For decades? May Clear blue sl&s, aircraft having.deposj dry cIcuds.Many of the schcmesno, suggested ofsunlight ‘reaching thep1anct’fle most Roger Ange1.ofth His
Pacccrth;each.cighing about one gram, to
in an orbit
ri .5 million km above .thc Earth.
ight reachjrj the Earth by two per cent.

taken place Under
ice, Silver iodide and cement ?04 to disperse look to do the Opposite, and reduce the.’amotiiit eye-catching ideaoEaJJ is suggthed by Professor Scheme would employ up to 1 6 trillion minute s form a transparent, sunhighrefraatjng sunshade
. This could, argues Angel, ‘reduce, thLmOunt of I
The majority ofgeoenginecrjflg projects
In deserts and depositing iron in the ocea
I achie’iñg a general cooling. of the garth.
at thepoles, particularly the Arctic. The
frozen Waters ofthe high latitudes, more
Warming ofthe oceans and atmosphere,

so far carried out —vhich include Planting forests n to Stimulate the growth ofalgae have focused on lut somelook spccifical1 at reversingthe melting
reasoning is that ifyo replenish the ice sheets and
light ,ec:1 BC nt.o space, so reducing the
The Concept of releasing aerosol sprays into he stratosphere above çhe ctic has bec proposed by Several scietjsts This wduld ivolvc usnsulphr. ohydrogen suiphide cro’so1s so that Sulphur dioxidewould form ‘clouds hih”wou1d in turn, lead to a global dimming. The idea s modelled on historic volcanic, explosions, such astht ofMounr Pinatub in the Philippines n 1991, hich led to a shorttm Cooling àfg1ba1 tempratures by
0.5 °C. Scientists have also SCrutjnjsed whether it’s pdssjbl o preserve the ice shcets ofGrcenland with reinforced hightensjo cables, PrFventig icebergs from m9ving into thç sea. Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo_engifleerjng plns include tc Planting of millions F birch trees. Whereas the regioflsflj evergren Piflesshadé thesndandabsorb radiation, birches would shed their


fleets were engaged ma sea battle off the coast of southern England in the area of water called the Solèht, between portsmouth and the Isle of Wight. Among the English vesselswas a warship by the name of Ma,y Rosè.• Built in Portsmouth kme 35 years earlier, she hadhad a long and successful fighting career, and was a favourIte of King Heni-y Viii. Accounts. ofwhat happened to,the ship vari:.whiIe witnessesagreethat she was not hit by the French, some maintain that she was outdated, overladen and sailing toà lowin the water, others thatshe was mishandled by undisciplined crews What is undisputed, however, is that the Mary Rose sank into the Solent that day, taking at least 500 men with her. After the battle, attempts were made.to recover the ship, butthesefailed
The Mary Rosé came to rest On the’ seabed, lying on her starboard (hght) side at an angle of’approximateiy 60 degrees. Thehull (the body of the ship) acted as atrap for the sand and mud carried-by SOIt currents Asa result, the starboard Side filled rapidly leaving the exposed Port (left) Side to be eroded by marine organj and%mechafljcaj dégradai BOuse of the way t!-1 ship sank nearly

all of the starboard half
During the seventeenth
centuries, theentire site
with a layer of hard grey
minimisedfurther erosion.
Then, on 16 June 1836. some fishermen
in the Solent found that their equipment was caught on an underwater obstruction,
. which turned out to be the Mary Rose. Diver John Deane happened to be exploring another sunken ship nearby, and the fishermen approached him, asking him to free their gear. Deane dived down, and.found the equipment caught on a timber protruding slightly from the seabed. Exploring.further, he uncovered several other timbers and a bronze gun. Deane Continued diving on the site intermittently until 1840, recovering several’more guns, two bows, various’ timbers, part of a pump and various other

survived and eigh became
clay, wh

intact.
teenth
cove red ich
. The ?Aaty Rose then faded into obscurity for another hundred years. But in 1965, military historianand amateur diver Alexander Mckee, in conjunction with the
. . British SubAqua Club, initiated a project called ‘Solent Ships’. While on paper
this was a plan to examine a number of
, knwh wrecks inthe Solent, what Mckee